Carbon 0. 55 to 0.65 Per cent
Manganese 0.80 to 1.00 Per cent
Phosphorus (not to exceed) 0.06 Per cent
Sulphur (not to exceed) 0.05 Per cent
Silicon 0.15 to 0.20 Per cent
The bonding of the rails has been carried out by the staff of the tramways department. At each joint there are two long No. 0000 B. & S. solid copper bonds with Daniel's, terminals through the web of the rail extending over the fish-plates, and two No. 0000 B. & S. flexible bonds with Daniel's terminals fixed on the sole of the rail. The bonds have been supplied by R. W. Blackwell and Company, Limited, London. Cross bonds connect all four rails of the double track at intervals, on the level, of 40 yards, and, on gradients, of 20 yards. Almost the whole of the track is paved with granite setts, these being thoroughly grouted with bitumen and granite chips. A little whin-stone is used in places, and in a few short sections experiments have been made with various styles of smooth paving. For the purpose of lessening the wear and tear of the paving next the rail in the busier parts of the city, chilled cast-iron paving blocks are laid on each side of the rail alternately with the granite setts. These blocks have a surface measurement of 6 in. by 4 in., with a weight each of about 9 1/4 lbs., and sixteen are required per yard of single track. They have been supplied by Miller and Company, Limited, Edinburgh.
The points and crossings have been for the most part supplied by the Lorain Steel Company. This firm has also supplied the special track work. The points are 12 and 14 feet in length, and are made of mild chilled steel. Duplicate tongues are kept to replace worn ones taken out. The crossings are constructed by using four pieces of rails and embedding them in a casting. A feature is the use of hardened, renewable cast steel plates, which are inserted at the intersections of all points and crossings. The renewable pieces are bedded with white metal spelter, and when a new piece is required the practice has been to chip out the old piece. This takes eight or nine hours, and as the time between the stopping of the cars at night and starting in the morning is less than this a good deal of trouble as well as time has been involved. During last month, Mr. King, engineer to the tramway department, carried out successful experiments in a more rapid method. He melts out the white metal by means of a large blowlamp, made by the Scottish Oil Gas Lamp and Furnace Company, Govan. One hour is sufficient to melt out the metal.
Experiments have been made with various mechanical point shifters, but it has been decided not to do anything further in this matter. The Board of Trade recommend that every car should be brought to a stop before taking a point, and the motorman can quite easily, and without any loss of time, then shift the point with an iron rod. The steepest grades on the Glasgow tramway system are Gibson Street, 1 in 12, and High Street, 1 in 14. The radius of the sharpest curve is 31 ft.
PINKSTON GENERATING STATION.
The main generating station is situated in the northern district of the city on the north bank of the Forth and Clyde Canal (Fig. 4.) The ground, which was purchased on May 4, 1899, extends to 18,997 sq yds. The site is an eminently convenient one, as it is not far removed from the centre of load of the whole tramway system, the four outlying sub-stations being practically all within the same radius. Being alongside the canal, there is an ample supply of water for con-densing purposes. The Caledonian and North British Railway Companies have each a siding leading right in to the coal bunkers. A plan of the building is given in Fig. 5, and of the site in Fig. 6.
Fig 4 Glasgow Tramway Power Station View from the Rear Showing Canal and Coal Recieving Shed
The building is 224 ft. long by 200 ft. broad, and the height from the basement level to the lowest member of the roof girders is 88 ft. The station is divided into three sections, viz. : boiler room 224ft. by 84 ft.; engine room 22 ft. by 75 ft.; auxiliary plant room 224 ft. by 40 ft; the height of the boiler room from the floor level is 70 ft., that of engine room 64 ft., and that of the auxiliary room 52 ft. The height of the two chimney stacks from the ground level is 263 ft. The width across the base is 50 ft.
Fig 5 Plan of Glasgow Tramway Power Station
The building consists, first of all, of a framework containing 1,300 tons of best open-hearth steel. This steel framework is made of sufficient strength to carry the roof and the travelling cranes. The steel work contract was carried out by the Riter Conley Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, and their contract provided for the construction, delivery, and erection of the framework, and also the columns, trusses, rafters, purlins, lanterns, floor beams, coal and ash bunkers, and the beams and girders for carrying the economisers, flues, bunkers, and coal conveyors. Mellowes glazing is used throughout.
The first sod was cut preliminary to the erection of the station on September 1, 1899. The digger work was all carried out by the tramways department staff, and upwards of 50,000 tons of material had to be removed in order to place the concrete foundations on the solid rock.
The steel framework is clothed with plastic clay brick. The brickwork contract was at first let to a contractor, but, after a little of the building work had been carried out, difficulties arose with the contractor, and, in consequence, the staff of the tramways department had to take up this work and carry it through to completion. The chimneys were also erected by the tramways staff. The outside coal bunkers are situated at the end wall of the boiler house, and have a capacity of about 3,000 tons. They are arranged so that wagons from either or both railways can be tipped into them by means of electric locomotive cranes. The bunkers over the boilers have a capacity of about 2,400 tons.
The coal is carried from the outside bunkers into the storage bunkers, which are erected on heavy steel riveted vertical and longitudinal H beams over the top of the boilers by means of two mechanical endless chain bucket conveyors built by the Mirrlees Watson Company, Glasgow (Fig. 7.) Each conveyor can handle 50 tons per hour, and runs at a speed of 45 ft. per minute. The coal passes from the overhead bunkers into the boiler hoppers through shoots with weighing arrangements so that all the coal used for each boiler is automatically weighed. The same conveyors are also used for the removal of ashes, which drop into an ash bin, from which the ashes are conveyed to ash bunkers over the boilers, whence the ashes are discharged into carts from long tubes. In the boiler room (Fig. 8) there are sixteen water-tube boilers, which have been supplied by the Babcock and Wilcox Company, Renfrew. They are divided into eight batteries of two boilers each, four batteries on each side of the boiler room. The boilers are of the horizontal water-tube type, with straight tubes 18 ft. long and 4 in. in diameter, and are each capable of producing 20,000 lb. of steam per hour at a working pressure of 160 lb. per square inch. Each boiler is provided with a superheater with bye-pass cut-out and regulating valve and pipe. It has a heating surface of 5,137 sq. ft. and the two fire grates are 10 ft. 10 in. long by 4 ft. 6 in. wide. Each of the sixteen boilers is fitted with a mechanical stoker of the Babcock and Wilcox chain grate type. This company's contract included, in addition to the stokers and smokeless furnaces, four electric motors, driving gear, etc.
The water for the boilers is taken from the Corporation mains through two storage tanks placed on girders between the two smoke stacks. These tanks are each 25 ft. long by 12 ft. broad by 10 ft. deep and their capacity is 18,000 gallons each. The circulating water is obtained from the Forth and Clyde Canal.
There are four motor-driven boiler feed pumps, each of sufficient capacity to deliver 8,000 gallons per hour, against a pressure of 180 lb. per square inch. These have been supplied by the Mirrlees Watson Company. Messrs. G. and J Weir, Cathcart, Glasgow, have provided a boiler steam feed pump capable of delivering 19,000 gallons of water per hour against the same pressure.
Four three-throw Edwards patent air pumps one for each main engine are installed, and each is sufficient to deal with 60,000lb. of exhaust steam per hour. These pumps were supplied by the Mirrlees Watson Company. The vacuum corresponds to a pressure of 26 in. of mercury. The same firm have supplied another air pump of the same type for the auxiliary condenser with a capacity of 24,000 lb. of exhaust steam per hour.
The circulating pumps, supplied by Messrs. Mavor and Coulson, Glasgow, are electrically driven. There are four of these centrifugal circulating water pumps, having each a capacity of 240,000 gallons of water per hour. Another circulating pump of the same make deals with the condenser of the auxiliary engines, and has a capacity of 96,000 gallons of water per hour. In the engine-room there are two overhead electric travelling cranes, each with sufficient capacity to lift 50 tons. There is also a crane in the auxiliary room capable of lifting 30 tons. All the cranes in the station have been supplied by the Clayton Engineering Electrical Construction Company, Limited.
Each battery of boilers is connected by a 7 in. steam pipe into a 9 in. cross main leading into the main header, which is 16 in. in diameter, and is in two parts connected by two expansion bands. The pipes from the header into the engines are 14 in. in diameter for two of the main engines, and 15 in. in diameter for the other two. All the piping is of lap-welded steel of extra heavy section. The piping was supplied by Messrs. Babcock and Wilcox.
The Claycross Company, Chesterfield, have supplied two fuel economisers, each capable of dealing with 12,000 gallons of water per hour, and of raising its temperature from 70 to 160 degrees Fahr. There are two steel flues, carried on steel girders, one above each row of boilers on opposite sides of the boiler-room. Each main flue is connected to the boilers by means of uptakes made of steel plates. In the engine room, which forms the centre bay of the building, there are four main engines (Fig. 9). These at the time of installation far excelled in size any in use in the country for tramway purposes. Each engine, which is direct coupled to a three-phase generator, is designed to work at 4,000 i.h.p., at its normal rate of working, but to be capable of developing a maximum of 5,000 i.h.p. while still running at its normal speed of 75 revolutions per minute. The engines are of the vertical inverted compound condensing three cylinder type, with Corliss valve gear. Two of these engines have been supplied by the E. P. Allis Company, Milwaukee, and two by Messrs. Musgrave and Sons, Bolton. The diameter of the high pressure cylinders is 42 in., the low pressure cylinders being 60 in. on the Musgrave, and 62 in. on the Allis. An outer bearing outside the generator is 30 in. by 48 in. The diameter of the shaft through the hub of the fly-wheel is 36 in. The diameters of the crank-pins beginning with the high pressure are 12 in., 16 in., and 20 in. respectively. The fly-wheel is 24 ft. in diameter, and weighs about 120 tons in the Allis engines, and 150 tons in the Musgrave engines. The weight of each engine complete is 700 tons. Measured over all each of the engines is almost 43 ft. in length, or 52 ft. including the flywheel and generator ; 35 ft. in height, and 24 ft. in depth from back to front.
In accordance with the terms of the contract, these engines required to undergo a series of tests. These were carried out in the spring of 1902, by Professor Barr, of Glasgow University. His report, which was not made public for some months, appeared in these pages on October 9 last. In the course of it Professor Barr said that " the results obtained in the tests of the Allis engines, as regards economy are unusally good. The consumption of steam is considerably below the guarantee, and the mechanical efficiency is much higher than that guaranteed. The mechanical efficiency, though not unprecedented, is so high that I felt it necessary to examine the observations and calculations very carefully before committing myself to a statement of it, but I am satisfied that the figures given must be very near the truth. As you are aware the guarantee as regards steam consumption is that the consumption of steam shall not exceed 14 1b. per brake horse-power hour. The consumption of steam per electrical horse-power comes out below that guaranteed per brake horsepower."
Prof. Barr's tables showed that the steam consumption of the two engines was at the rate of 12.2 lb. and 12.4 lb. respectively per indicated horse-power hour. Per electrical horse-power hour it was 13.2 lb. and 13.6 lb. The combined efficiency of engine and dynamo was in the one case 92.3 per cent., and in the other 91.7. The permanent variation of speed from mean, between no load and full load, was 1.5 per cent, and 1.6 per cent.
In the case of the Musgrave engines, Prof. Barr stated : "I consider the results, as regards efficiency, very satisfactory, and that the engines fulfil all the conditions of the contract. The permanent variation of speed from the mean obtained in the test of engine No. 3 is a little higher than it should be ; but taking into consideration the low result got for No. 4 engine, and the somewhat indefinite nature of this test, I consider that the engines may be taken as satisfactory in this respect also. The governor gear could, no doubt, be set to give a less variation of speed if it is considered advisable to do so." The tables on the Musgrave engines showed that the steam consumption was 13.4 lb. and 13.2 lb. per indicated horse-power hour. Per electrical horse-power hour it was 14.4 lb. and 14.2 lb. The combined efficiency of engine and dynamo was in each case 93 per cent. The permanent variation of speed from mean between no load and full load was 178 per cent, and 1.43 per cent. It may be remembered that the storm of controversy which arose when the contracts were fixed as to the relative merits of British and American engines was renewed on the publication of Prof.Barr's report, and as both classes of engines gave very similar and excellent results there was still plenty of room for discussion.
In the engine-room, between No. 1 main engine and the exciters, there are also two auxiliary engines for the purpose of driving the auxiliary plant and for supplying power direct to the sub-stations during the night, for lighting the sheds, moving cars, etc. These two auxiliary engines are of the vertical cross-compound type, each of 800 h.p. at normal load, but capable of developing a maximum of 1,000 h.p. The weight of each engine is 122 tons. The cylinders are, respectively, 22 in. and 44 in. in diameter, and the stroke is 42 in. These engines were supplied by Duncan Stewart and Company, Limited, Glasgow. The four main engines and the two auxiliary engines are oiled by the Siegrist system of automatic oiling. The exciter engines (Fig. 11) six in number, are of the enclosed inverted compound type, with cylinders 11 in. and 19 in., by 8 in. stroke, rated at 85 h.p., running at a speed of 300 revolutions per minute, and are coupled direct to the dynamo.
These engines were supplied by Messrs. W. H. Allen and Company, Bedford. Each of the four main engines is direct coupled to a three-phase star-wound generator, designed for an output of 2,500 kw. at a pressure of 6,500 volts between each phase, when running at a speed of 75 revolutions per minute. Each generator has 40 poles, so that at its rated speed the periodicity of the three-phase current is 25 cycles per second. The weight of the revolving fields is nearly 38 tons, while that of the armature and frame is almost 44 tons. Each generator complete weighs fully 90 tons. The diameter of the field frame is 16 ft. 8 in., and the diameter across the outside armature frame is 21 ft. 6 in. These generators have been supplied by the British Thomson-Houston- Company. This company also supplied the two 500 volt direct current generators of 600 kw. capacity coupled to the auxiliary engines, and also the six exciter dynamos of 50 kw. capacity coupled to the exciter engines. A view showing part of the main engines and generators is given in Fig. 11
The switchboards are erected in a gallery on the north gable of the engine room. They consist of four generator, four inter-connector, six exciter, and twenty feeder panels. The feeder panels are situated in a separate apartment to the rear of the generator panels, in five groups, each group supplying one sub-station. The main board, which was supplied by the British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, comprises an area of about 1,500 sq. ft. of marble. All the switches and other instruments are of the Westinghouse type. Each generator panel has a main three-phase high tension switch, three ammeters, a voltmeter, a field ammeter, two indicating watt meters, a volt meter plug, and a double-throw field switch. Another switchboard for the auxiliary generators, station light, and power currents, and 500 volt depot feeders is situated on the ground floor underneath the main switchboard gallery. In Fig.12 part of the lower switchboard may be seen below the gallery, while the front of the upper switchboard is fully displayed.
The various connections of the main switchboard are shown in Fig.13. Each generator panel is connected directly with the group of feeder panels behind it and with the main busbars. The latter are divided at the interconnecting panels, which are placed between the generator panels. The generators can therefore be worked separately or in parallel as preferred. All the bus-bars and high tension connecting bars consist of bare copper tubes carried on porcelain insulators 10 ft. above the gallery level. All the instruments are worked on the transformer principle, so that no part of them is subject to a high pressure. Generator field rheostats are placed below the platform and operated by hand-wheels. All cables from the dynamos to the switchboard are paper insulated and lead covered. Three separate cables from each main dynamo are brought to the switchboard through a system of pipes carried below the floor.
There are in all five sub-stations situated in different districts of the city. On the south side of the Clyde there are Coplawhill and Kinning Park ; in the west end, Partick; in the east end, Whitevale ; and Dalhousie is situated near the centre of the city. At the five sub-stations there are in all 24 units, as under :
Kinning Park 4
The units are all of the same size, each unit consisting of three transformers of 200 kw. each, and one rotary converter of 500 kw. Each substation contains two switchboards, one for alternating current and the other for direct current. All high tension connections are made by straight copper tubes, carried on insulators at a height of 10 ft. above the floor.
Each set of transformers, which are connected in mesh, are placed in a brick chamber, completely isolated by brickwork and iron floors from the rest of the plant. The transformers are of the oil-cooled type, and are each of 200 kw. capacity. Four tappings are taken off the primary winding, so that with 6,500 volts on the primary, the windings can be plugged so as to give either 310, 327, 330, or 350 volts on the secondary winding. The guarantee efficiency on full load is 97 1/2, per cent., and 97 per cent, on half load.
Fig 13 Diagram Showing General Arrangemet of Switchboard in Main Power Station.
The rotary converters are each of 500 kw. capacity. They are six-pole machines, running at a speed of 500 revolutions per minute. The machines are wound either shunt or compound, being over-compounded to give 500 to 550 volts. The efficiency at full load is 95 per cent., three-quarter load 94 per cent., half load 92.5 per cent. On the alternating current end of the rotary shaft a 10 h.p. starting induction motor is fixed for purposes of running the rotary up to synchronism, the speed being varied by increasing or decreasing the excitation of the rotary field on the direct-current side, also by throwing a variable resistance across two phases on the alternating current side. On the other end of the shaft a continuous current booster is fixed for dealing with part of the return current, so as to minimise and control the drop in the rails. The booster is rated at 30 kw. at 80 volts, at a speed of 500 r.p.m. The fields are excited by a portion of the feeder current. Shunt resistances are so arranged that 200, 400, or 600 amps, can be passed round the field, or the field can be short circuited. All the electrical equipment has been supplied by the British Westinghouse Company.
Figs. 16 and 17 are a ground plan and cross section of the Whitevale sub-station, which is typical of the others, and a view of the interior of the converter room is given in Fig. 18. The transformers are shut up in their cells on the left, and the converters are to the right. The connections of the two switchboards are shown in Figs. 14 and 15.
From the main power-station twenty 3-core extra high tension cables are run, four to each substation, the cross sectional area of each core being .15 sq.in. to two sub-stations, and 1 sq. in. to the other three. These cables are insulated with manilla paper impregnated with an insulating oil and lead sheathed. In addition, there are single core 500-volt direct current feeders run to each sub-station, these cables being used for supplying current to the system during the hours when there is little or no demand for power for traction purposes. Return cables are also run from the power-station and connected to the tramway rails at the nearest convenient point some 1,280 yards distant.
The threecore cables enter the five substations from ducts into a cable race and are then split inside iron joint boxes fixed on the walls into three separate rubber insulated single cables, through specially designed connectors on to the feeder panels of the sub-station alternating current switchboard. From the direct current switchboards of the sub-station the 500 volt feeder cables are led along the cable race into the ducts to the various feeder pillars in the streets. These feeder cables (some 63 in number) have cross sectional areas from .8 sq. in. down to .4 sq. in. some of the feeders to heavy sections being duplicated.
A few interconnecting cables are also laid from the sub-stations to the nearest distributing section switch pillars in the streets. The distributor cables, ranging in size from .8 sq. in. to 1 sq. in., run from the feeder pillars backwards and forwards to numerous distributing switch pillars. Throughout the central parts of the city, adjoining feeder areas can be interconnected by cables running between the nearest switch pillars, a system of ring mains being thus formed, so that any necessary repairs in case of the breakdown of any cable can be speedily carried out, without causing undue delay to the traffic.
Negative feeders, numbering 21 in all, used for boosting the return current from the rails, are laid to the heavily loaded and more distant parts of the system. These cables have a cross sectional area of .8 sq. in. or .6 sq. in. each, and a total area of 12.6 sq. in.
The necessary test cables are carried from each sub-station to the most distant point of the rails, and to each point where the negative feeders are connected to the rails within the sub-station area. The whole of the cables, with a small exception, were supplied by the National Conduit and Cable Company. The total length of cables used in connection with the tramways amounts to about 363 1/2 miles, made up as follows :
DUCTS AND MANHOLES.
Most of the ducts are formed of a riveted lapping of sheet iron of No. 25 S.W.G. (i.e. .02 in. thick) lined with a special cement 9 9/16 in. thick. The ducts are laid between the tramway tracks in rows varying from 27 in a line to 3 in a line, and in tiers ranging from 6 deep to a single row. The bottom tier is laid on a bed of concrete 3 inches thick, and each tier is covered with cement, while concrete is laid at the sides and on the top to a depth of 3 inches, the whole forming a nest of cement lined pipes embedded in a solid mass of concrete. In some parts of the city Doulton conduits and ordinary fire-clay pipes, and in others iron pipes are used. The manholes are built of brickwork, the roof being supported by old tramway rails. Entrance is obtained by a circular hole closed by a ventilated cast iron cover 2 ft. in diameter, and wherever possible the manholes are connected to the main sewers through syphon traps. The sizes of the manholes vary from 10 ft. by 10 ft. by over 8 ft. deep to those where sufficient depth could only be obtained to build a small drawbox about 9 inches deep. The manholes are placed at extreme distances of over 400 feet apart on straight runs, to a minimum of about 50 feet on sharp curves.
The whole of the cement lined pipes were made and supplied by the National Conduit and Cable Company of .New York, who also laid the larger portion of their own ducts. Extensions on this system have been carried out by the Corporation's own men. The Doulton ducts and fireclay and iron pipes were laid by Messrs. Macartney, M'Elroy and Company, A. and J. Faill, Jas. Cameron, Daniel Murray, and A. Stark and Sons. Under the Forth and Clyde Canal the cables are carried in a tunnel surrounded by concrete and lined with cast iron tubes, built up of plates securely bolted and rust-jointed together. The vertical shafts are 8 ft. in diameter, by about 27 ft. deep ; the horizontal tunnel is 5 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and has a fall of 1 in 100 toward the south end, where a sump 3 ft. deep is built to catch any leakage, which is carried off by a drain to the sewer.
A very complete system of telephones has been laid down, and may be, for purpose of description, divided into the following circuits : (1) Head office to main power-station, substations, car sheds or depots, car works, and residences of the principal officials and their assistants ; (2) head office to numerous telephone pillars erected on the streets, keys of which are carried by every car and each inspector and timekeeper; (3) power station to each substation; (4) "emergency system" from each sub-station to every feeder and distributing switch pillar within its own area of supply. The whole of the telephone system, excepting the cables, but including the supply, erection, and connecting-up of all exchange boards, street telephone pillars, instruments, and. plug-boxes, was carried out by the General Electric Company.
The Springburn route was equipped in 1898 by Macartney, M'Elroy, and Company, Limited, for the Westinghouse Company, and the general system was equipped later on by the same firm. The total length of street equipped by this firm was about 45 miles. On subsequent extensions of the system the overhead work has been carried out by the staff of the tramways department.
Regarding the style of overhead equipment adopted, centre poles have been placed on short lengths in Springburn Road and in Castle Street, also on Glasgow Bridge, and for about a mile in Great Western Road, from Kelvin Bridge to Hyndland Road. On all the rest of the system the span wire construction has been adopted. Wherever possible the span wire is attached to the buildings by means of rosettes on either side of the street. Where the buildings are not suitable, and also in the rural districts where there are no buildings, the span wires are supported by steel poles.
The height of the centre poles above the ground is 25 ft. 6 in. the pole being divided into three sections. The side poles are 31 ft. 6 in. in height. These poles have been supplied, for the most part, by Wilson's and Union Tube Company, Glasgow. The weight of the centre pole complete is about 12 1/2 cwt., and of the side pole about 10 1/2 cwt. The pole bases were supplied by Messrs. M'Dowall, Steven and Company, Glasgow.
The ordinary trolley wire (2/0 B. and S.), was supplied by Messrs. R. W. Blackwell and Company, London, and Messrs. J. A. Roeblings, Son, and Company, per Messrs. Back and Manson, London ; and the 2/0 phono-electric trolley wire at present being used has been supplied by the Bridgepont Brass Company, per Mr. Frank Z. Maguire, London. The guard wire has been supplied by Messrs. R. W. Blackwell and Company, and Messrs. John Stewart and Company, Limited, Glasgow. It is of No. 7 S.W.G. galvanized steel. The trolley span wire is of 7 strand No. 12 S.W.G. with a breaking strain of 4,000 lb., and the guard span wire of 7 strand No. 14 S.W.G. wire with a breaking strain of 2,000 lb.
The guard wire is earthed at intervals of five or six spans, the guard span wire being connected to the pole by means of an ordinary rail bond expanded into the pole and joined up to the guard wire with stranded copper wire soldered on. The poles are then earthed to the rails with rail bonds, made up to the required length with ordinary trolley wire. The system is divided into half-mile sections. The section boxes contain feeder and trolley line switches, and have been supplied by Messrs. M'Dowall, Steven and Company, Limited, Glasgow.
The total number of cars owned by the Corporation now is 611, as under :
Standard double-deck cars 470
Converted horse cars 120
Single-deck cars 21
Other 70 standard double deck cars are at present being built in the workshops of the department to cope with the increasing traffic. All the above cars have been built and equipped in the Coplawhill Works with the exception of 80 car bodies which were ordered from the Gloucester Carriage and Wagon Company. The single deck cars were built in 1898 as an experiment for the Springburn route. These cars have accommodation for 50 passengers. The entrance is in the centre of the car, with a smoking compartment at one end, and the nonsmoking compartment at the other end. Each car has two trucks, with a 35-H.P. motor on each truck.
The body of the double deck car (Fig. 19) is 17 ft. long, with capacity for 25 inside and 30 on the top. They are fitted with the Brill 2IE trucks, which have been supplied by the Brill Company. The converted horse cars (Fig. 20) have had the roofs strengthened and the platforms lengthened. In these cars there is capacity for 50 passengers. They are also equipped with J. G. Brill 2IE trucks, supplied by the Brill Company.
The wheels and axles have been supplied by Messrs. Miller and Company, Edinburgh, and the J. G. Brill Company. Each wheel is guaranteed to run 30,000 miles. The diameter of the wheels is 30 inches, and the axles now being ordered have a diameter of 4 1/8 in. The controllers in use are the Westinghouse No. 90, and the General Electric Company's B13 and B18.
The trolleys used are of the following types : On standard double deck and converted horse cars the Blackwell trolley standard with outside springs is used exclusively. Those being fitted to the 70 cars under construction are of the inside spring type and are being supplied by Messrs. Estler Brothers, London. The trolley-head used is of the fixed straight under-running type.
The undernoted types of motors are being used :
Westinghouse No. 49 B.. .. .. 650 equipments
Witting Brothers 100 equipments
General Electric Company GE. 52 .. .. 20 equipments
and have been supplied by the above firms.
Each car is fitted with the ordinary mechanical hand brake and the rheostatic brake. 100 cars are also fitted with the Westinghouse electromagnetic track brake. These track brakes are at present being tested. All the cars have been fitted with the Tidswell life guard.Several experiments have been made in connection with the introduction of a dry seat for the top of the cars, but nothing of a nature satisfactory to the department could be found. The department have made, in their own workshops, a seat with narrow slats and have equipped the cars with these. This seat seems to be answering the purpose quite well.
The question of a roof cover has been considered, but there are so many very low railway bridges on almost every route in Glasgow that it is quite impossible to put up any protection for the passengers on the roofs of the cars.
In connection with the destination signs many experiments have been made. Each route has its own distinctive colour, and, in addition to the destination signs, the cars are known by the colour of the side and end destination boards. For some time the end destination screen with the friction rollers supplied by the British Electric Car Company has been used, and now the destination boxes and screen for the sides of the car, supplied by the same company, have been introduced, and the lettering on the side board is being done away with. In this way the cars can be more easily transferred from one route to another. A green car can now be put on any green route, and the same with any other colour.
The lighting of the cars is very effective. Each car has six lights inside and two on the roof, and, in addition, there is a light on each dash, and one under each canopy. There are twelve lamps lit at one time.
The number of car sheds in use is nine, situated in the various districts of the city as under:
West End .. Partick.
North .. ... Possilpark and Maryhill.
East End .. Dennistoun, Whitevale, and Oalmarnock.
South .. .. Pollokshaws, Langside, and Kinning Park.
There is accommodation at the above depots for 868 cars. At Possilpark depot there is room for 134 cars, and at Langside depot for 180 cars. These depots were erected in 1901, for the accommodation of electric cars. All the other depots were originally built as horse car sheds and stables, but have all been made suitable for the accommodation of electric cars. There are car pits at all the depots. Possilpark has 19, and Langside 20. The number of tracks in all the depots is 141, and the total mileage of these tracks amounts to over 5 miles. The number of tracks at Langside is 20, and the number at Possilpark is 19.
At present the roofs at Dennistoun and Dalmarnock are being raised for the accommodation of the additional cars that are required to cope with the increasing traffic. At all the depots there is office accommodation, lavatories, washing room, baths, kitchen, recreation room, etc. Arrangements are being made to fit up gymnastic appliances in the recreation rooms at all the depots.
In the construction of car bodies at Coplawhill works great care has been exercised in selecting timber of the very best quality. For the general framework the best dry Moulmein teak has been largely used. The under-framing, which is of this class of timber, is of massive design, strongly supported by heavy malleable iron corner plates, side sill plates, and malleable cast corner brackets, trussed at each side with 7/8 in. truss rods, and bound together by six 3/4 in. cross binding bolts. The roof ribs are of best English ash, 1 1/4 in. by 1 1/4 in., sawn to the proper curve, every alternate rib having mild steel car lines 1 1/4 in. by 1/4 in. on each side, kneed at the ends for fixing to the side rail.
The roof is double lined, and between the inner and outer lining, canvas, thoroughly stretched and saturated with genuine white lead, is placed. The inner lining is 3 in. by 3/8 in. whitewood and the outer is 6 in. by 1 in. red deal. The panels are of Honduras mahogany, glue-blocked and canvassed inside to the battens and side pillars. The inside finishing is in teak panelling with mahogany mouldings, the ceiling being of three-ply bird's-eye maple, picked out in gold lines and ornamental corners.
The platform bearers and headstock are of Siemens Martin mild steel angles, 3 1/2 in. by 3 1/2 in. by 1/2 in., and 4 in. by 4 in. by 1/2 in. respectively. Platform and inside flooring are of 1 in. red deal with hardwood wearing strips. The inside seats are of the usual lath and space type, 1 1/4 in. by 5/8 in., with a space of 5/32 in. pitch pine and teak alternately, curved to form a comfortable seat, and got up in natural grain and varnished.
A plan and section of the Coplawhill works were given in our issue of December 11 last. The various departments are all well equipped with machine tools, etc. The whole of the cars undergo an annual examination and overhaul, in addition to repairs which they at any time require. The number dealt with at a time is proportioned so that the whole may be got over in the year. A continual rotation goes on.
PERMANENT WAY MAINTENANCE.
We come now to questions of maintenance and working. The permanent way system is divided into sections, for each of which a separate account is kept. A comparison is made between the cost of upkeep of the various sections. In this way some idea is obtained of how the wear and tear is affected by service, gradient, etc. For such a comparison to be scientifically accurate, the following factors have to be taken into account :
Gradient (as affecting up track and down track).
Lengths of rail used (as affecting joints).
Nature of joints.
Presence or absence of extra protection (as chilled blocks).
Curvature of line.
Nature of paving.
Nature of bottoming.
The cost of maintaining each section of line for the year is divided by the number of cars that had passed over it in the year, and a figure obtained which represents the cost of maintenance per 100 car journeys.
The section of line in Glasgow over which most traffic passes is Renfield Street, and here an abnormal expenditure upon maintenance is due principally to two causes, (1) the heavy gradient and (2) the close service. From St. Vincent Street to Bath Street the rise is 1 in 25, and over this section in the busier parts of the day there pass 250 cars per hour.
A few Cooper-Anchor joints have lately been put down in New City Road, but it is yet too soon to say what the effect will be. In the extensions at present under construction the general manager purposes trying the effect of a welded joint. The Lorain Company's joint, and also the thermit joint, may be tried.
ARRANGEMENT OF DUTIES.
The duties, of motormen and conductors are divided into three classes, viz.: (i) Workmen reliefs, (2) regular duties, (3) ordinary reliefs. The men work on an average nine hours per day for six days each week, all taking their share of Sunday duty. Fifteen minutes are allowed in the morning for taking the car from depot, checking tickets, etc., and ten minutes are allowed for housing the car, handing over tickets, etc. Men taking up a car en route are allowed five minutes in depot and walking time at the rate of three miles per hour to the point at which they take over the car. Each depot is worked independently. Relief points are generally fixed at the termini nearest the depot or at the timing point moot suitable to the homes of the majority of the men.
The regular service starts about 7-30 a.m., and workmen finish out their day's work by relieving regular cars, and, along with the ordinary relief men, give the regular men the necessary time off to reduce their day's work to an average of nine hours. Men employed on workmen's cars have their duties arranged so that they finish early in the evening, not later than 6 p.m. if possible. Ordinary relief men have one early night in three. Regular men have early finishing duties corresponding with the number of cars run in early at their depots, the average being about alternate late and early nights. The average daily compass over which the work is spread is about 12 1/2 hours.
All the duties are so arranged that, with few exceptions the work is done in two shifts of about equal length of time. All men rotate daily in their own class, through all cars operated from their depot finishing one route before starting another. Spare men are employed, and are paid full wages from the beginning of their practice. Men are advanced from the spare list to ordinary reliefs, regular duties, and workmen reliefs, according to the length of their service, etc.
An elaborate ticket check system is in use, which gives very satisfactory results. Both punches and way-bills are employed, and there is also a staff of inspectors.
DAILY AND WEEKLY RETURNS.
The general manager has a very complete set of forms for daily and weekly statements of revenue and expenditure. The statement giving each day's traffic receipts shows the number of cars on each route, the car mileage on each route, the total receipts, and the receipts per car mile. Another statement giving similar information for the week is submitted to him with a note of the number of passengers carried at each fare. In addition to the calculation per car mile, the receipts on each route are brought out per car hour.
Numerous statements are submitted to the general manager weekly, giving full details of all expenditure. The wages paid amount to over £4,000 weekly. The total amount paid is allocated to the various accounts chargeable, and worked out per car mile and per car hour, so that the slightest variation is quite easily detected.
The amount expended in the maintenance of permanent way, power plant, cars, etc., is also worked out per car mile, so that from week to week all items of expenditure can be carefully watched and regulated. Copies of all these
statements are prepared for the heads of the various departments for their information and guidance. Mr. Young believes in keeping all records up to date, so that they may be of service in checking any leakage from week to week.
The total staff at this date numbers .......................3,350.
Head office :
Engineers .. .. .. ........................................................13
Draughtsmen .. .......................................................... 6
Clerks, etc. (male) .. .. ..............................................52
Clerks (female) .. ..................................................... 59
Clerks, etc. (outside cash offices) ..............................47
Inspectors . . .. .. ......................................................10
Sundries .. . . .. .........................................................13
Power-station . . ... ..................................................98
Sub-stations .. .. ...................................................... 28
Mains and cables .. .. ...............................................12
Overhead equipment and repairs.............................. 40
Depot staff :
Car repairers, car cleaners, etc. .. .. ......................... 14
Motormen and conductors .. .. ............................ 1,870
Ticket inspectors and timekeepers . . ....................... 68
Depot clerks .. .. .. . . . . ...........................................24
Trolley and point boys.. .. .. .. ...................................40
Trackmen .. .. .. .. .. .................................................10
Car works .. .. .. .. .. .. ........................................... 356
Permanent way .. .. .. .. ...........................................240
Buildings, repairs, etc. .. .. .........................................20
Horsing, etc. .. .. .. .. . . .......................................... . 30
All the traffic staff, including motormen, conductors, ticket inspectors, timekeepers, trolley and point boys, are supplied with uniform as under:
One jacket to last two summers.
One overcoat to last two winters.
One waterproof coat each year.
One cap each year.
One tunic to last two summers.
One overcoat to last two winters.
One cap each year.
Conductors with twelve months service are supplied with two pairs trousers each year.
Ticket Inspectors and Time- keepers.
One summer coat to last two summers.
One overcoat to last two winters.
One waterproof to last one year and a half.
Two pairs of trousers each year.
One cap each year.
Trolley and Point Boys.
One jacket to last two summers.
One overcoat to last two winters.
One cap each year.
One cape to last two years.
The men engaged at the overhead repairs are supplied with leather rainproof coats, gloves, and rubber boots, and these are repaired when required. All the permanent way inspectors are supplied with a waterproof coat and cap each year.
Highly satisfactory results have been obtained from ambulance classes, which are attended by a large proportion of the men. At least 25 per cent, of the men employed on the cars are certificated ambulance students.
The financial year for all the accounts of the Glasgow Corporation ends at May 31. The report for the past financial year has already been prepared by the Tramways Committee.
The following is an abstract statement of the revenue and expenditure for the year to May 31, 1903, as compared with the figures for 1902 :
The following are the items under working expenses for the year :
Power .. .. .. .. .. .. ...............................................................£ 20,112.. 10s.. 5d
Traffic .. .. .. .. .. ............................................................. £ 176,532.. 17s ..11d
General .. .. .. .. ..' ................................................................. £ 44,014.. 8s.. 5d
Repairs . . . . .. .. .. . .............................................................£ 63,654.. 18s.. 4d
Set aside to meet permanent way renewal ............................. £53,516 ..13s.. 3d
Annual depreciation written off . . . ....................................... £ 74,038 ..14s.. 7d
Total .. .. ...........................................................................£ 431,870.. 2s.. 11d
The number of car miles run during the year was 14,008,750, and the number of passengers carried reached a total of 177,179,549.
The total capital expenditure from 1871 to 1903 amounted to £2,754,855.. 9s.. 11d. This sum has been written down to £2,129,512.. 1s. The sums written off have been :
Permanent way depreciation .. .. .................... . £ 201,470
Old horse system .. .. .. ................................... £ 180,596
Depreciation on present electric plant . . ...........£ 243,277
The total amount borrowed for capital purposes as at May 31, 1903, was £1,889,311 12s. This is the balance of debt after applying £155,332 8s. of sinking fund.
For this present debt of £1,889,311 12s., the Corporation have a power-station which will meet the requirements of the tramways for a number of years. Ducts and cables have also been laid down in view of future extensions. The workshops of Coplawhill are capable of handling an increased number of cars, and the car sheds will accommodate all the cars which are likely to be required for some time. The present debt amounts to about £14,533 per mile of single track. This figure will gradually decrease as the system is extended.
In the accounts for the past year revenue has been charged with £53,516 13s. 3d., to meet the wear and tear of the track. This sum is calculated at the rate of £450 per mile of single track, and is in addition to the usual expenses for ordinary maintenance. The sum laid aside will be sufficient to completely renew the track every ten years.
In addition to the above, the revenue of the year is charged with sums to meet depreciation at the following percentages on the original cost:
Bonding of rails. 7 1/2 per cent.
Ducts, cables, poles, and rosettes .. 3
Section boxes and telephones 5
Buildings .. .. . . . .2 1/2
Power-station machinery 5
Machine tools 7 1/2
Sundry equipments 5 3/4
Furniture 7 1/2
The total amount set aside to meet depreciation for the year to May 31, 1902, was £67,402.
These sums are charged in addition to the cost of ordinary repairs, and also in addition to the statutory sinking fund of -£36,974. After meeting all working expenses, fixed charges, and paying over £12,500 to the Common Good, the department had still a net profit of £100,495, which was carried to the general reserve fund.
The total amount set aside to meet annual depreciation for the year to May 31, 1903, was £74,038 14s. 7d. Out of the net balance of £100,276 18s., it will be seen from the foregoing statement that the Tramways Committee have handed over an additional sum of £10,000 to the Common Good, and have decided to appropriate £65,000 to write down certain items in the capital. The balance of £25,276 18s. has been added to the general reserve fund.
© The Tramway and Railway World